Topic initiated on Wednesday, September 13, 2006 - 11:04 PM
|Is family planning is Haram in Islam|
This is a very common question between our young generation.
To my knowledge Birth control is permissible according to Islam, which recognizes that the sexual act is more than just a means of procreation.
During the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), the most commonly practiced method of birth control was 'azl or the withdrawal method. According to the ulama (scholars), withdrawal is permissible but generally thought to be makruh (reprehensible), since it deprives the woman of her right to be able to have sexual satisfaction and to bear children if she so desires, so therefore the conclusion reached by most scholars is that withdrawal should not be practiced unless the woman agrees to it.
If repeated pregnancies have weakened the woman's body or becoming pregnant would threaten her life, such birth control may be construed as a necessity, and not makruh.
Modern scholar Shaykh Ahmad al-Sharabassi of Egypt has pronounced the following as genuine reasons for practicing contraception:
So that the woman may rest between pregnancies.
If either partner has a transmittable disease.
For the sake of the woman's health. For example if she is already breast-feeding a child it would be damaging for both her and the child to have another pregnancy.
If the husband can not afford to support any more children.
Since most "modern" methods of birth control have the same aim as the withdrawal method --- to frustrate the attempt of the sperm to fertilize the egg --- we can by analogy assume that modern birth control is also permissible.
Among the methods that work by preventing fertilization of the egg by the sperm are: the "Pill", IUD, diaphragm, condom, sponge, spermicides, and the rhythm method.
Of these the most questionable is the IUD (Intrauterine Device), since if a woman becomes pregnant while using this device, there is a higher likelihood that the pregnancy will occur outside the womb (ectopic) or be aborted during the second term. This method is best for women who have already had at least one child.
The Pill is a very effective method if the woman can remember to take the pill at the same time everyday, and can tolerate the side effects that sometimes effect pill users. This method is generally considered safe for women who are under the age of 35 who do not smoke.
The diaphragm is a barrier method which is most effective when the woman has experience with inserting the device and her partner has the patience to wait.
The condom and sponge are easily available barrier methods that don't require a visit to the doctor. Again, patience is needed on the part of both partners while the condom is put on or the sponge is inserted.
Spermicides are usually used in conjunction with another method (such as the sponge, diaphragm, or condom) to increase the contraceptive effectiveness of that method. Some people have allergic-type reactions to the chemicals in these jelly-like substances, and must discontinue using them.
Douching is considered to be a very ineffective way to prevent a pregnancy, since it actually forces the sperm up towards the uterus.
The Rhythm Method, also called Fertility Awareness, involves avoiding intercourse on the days when the women is most fertile.
Other methods of birth control are called "irreversible" methods, and include vasectomy, tubal ligation and hysterectomy. All three involve surgical procedures to permanently end the fertility of the man or woman. Sometimes these procedures are reversible, but it is not guaranteed.
Islamic scholars usually say that such irreversible methods of contraception are forbidden, based upon a hadith of the Prophet (SAW) forbidding some early Muslim men to castrate themselves. In addition, such surgical intervention into the human body without need, alters the true nature of our bodies as Allah (SWT) created them. Again, such methods become permissible in the case of necessity.
Occasionally even reversible birth control can become unlawful. This can happen on a temporary basis if the issue of population control is politicized. For example, if a non-Muslim government tries to impose birth control on its Muslim citizens in order to deplete their numbers, a sheikh could issue a fatwa (ruling) saying that birth control is forbidden, until that situation passes. Many of the Muslims who opposed the Family Planning conference in Egypt in 1994 did so because they saw birth control being used as a weapon against Muslims, to control the Muslim population, which is growing faster than that of any other religion.
After a woman gives birth, she is temporarily unable to become pregnant, while her body recovers from the pregnancy. If she is breast-feeding the new baby, she is even less likely to become pregnant. This breast-feeding "method" of birth control is NOT guaranteed to prevent pregnancy, but it has been shown that if a woman is breast-feeding regularly, like every 4 hours, without giving supplemental feedings, then she is unlikely to ovulate. If a woman goes 10-12 hours or longer without breast feeding her infant,, then her cycle is likely to return.
For a nursing mother there is a 1% chance that she will become pregnant within the first 3 months after delivering a baby, a 5% chance within the first 6 months, and a 10% chance within the first year. For a non-nursing mother, the percentages are 3% for the first 3 months, 15% for 6 months and a 25% chance she will become pregnant again within a year. These figures assume that no other method of birth control is being used.
"And do not kill your children for fear of poverty: We give them sustenance and yourselves (too): surely to kill them is a great wrong." (17:31)
The abortion of a fetus from the mother's womb is a different issue, since the sperm and egg have already met and fertilized what could become a human being. The scholars all agree that abortion is forbidden after the first four months of pregnancy, since by that time the soul has entered the embryo. The schools of shari'ah (Islamic law) vary regarding the exact time the soul is believed to have entered the embryo. Some say that pregnancy begins as soon as the fertilized egg implants itself in the uterus, and to end the pregnancy after that point would forbidden. This is almost like saying that abortion itself is forbidden, since the fertilized egg will have implanted itself in the uterus within a few days after intercourse, but it would allow the use of RU486 (the "morning-after pill"), as long as it could be reasonably assumed that the fertilized egg has not become implanted on the wall of the uterus.
Most scholars say that abortion is legal under Islamic shariah (law), when done for valid reasons and when completed before the soul enters the embryo. To abort a baby for such vain reasons as wanting to keep your youthful figure, are not valid.
"...and do not slay your children for (fear of) poverty -- We provide for you and for them --- and do not draw nigh to indecencies, those of them which are apparent and those which are concealed, and do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden except for the requirements of justice: this He has enjoined you with that you may understand." (6:151)
"Contemporary Jurisprudence Research Journal," 15th Ed., 4th yr., Oct. & Nov. & Dec. 1992, pp. 57-59, "Biomedical Issues Islamic Perspective," Abul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim, "The New Birth Control Book," by Howard I. Shapiro, M.D., "Marriage and Morals in Islam," by Sayyid M. Rizvi
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Posted - Thursday, September 14, 2006 - 9:43 AM
|There are fundamentally two methods of Contraception or family planning.|
(1) Permanent methods.
(2) Temporary methods
(1) Permanent Methods: Permanent methods include, Vasectomy in males and Tubecotomy in females. All the scholars unanimously agree that permanent methods of family planning are prohibited since they involve changing human physiology. Says Allah in the Qur’an:
“So set you your face steadily and truly to the Faith: (Establish) Allah’s handiwork according to the pattern on which He has made humankind: no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by Allah: that is the standard Religion: but most among mankind understand not.” (Al-Qur’an 30:30)
The Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said: “Marry the one who is loving and fertile, for I will be proud of your great numbers before the nations [i.e., on the Day of Resurrection].” (Abu Dawood Hadith no. 2050, Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 1805)
(2) Temporary Methods: Following are various different temporary methods.
a) M.T.P. (Medical Termination of Pregnancy) or Abortion: All scholars unanimously agree that M.T.P. or abortion is prohibited. Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an
“...kill not your children on a plea of want; We provide sustenance for you and for them;” (Al-Qur’an 6:151)
“Kill not your children for fear of want: We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you: verily the killing of them is a great sin.” (Al-Qur’an 17:31)
However, scholars unanimously agree that any permanent method of family planning, or even abortion, can be done if the life of the mother is in danger. For e.g. if the woman is suffering from certain diseases like heart disease or has under gone multiple caesarean operations and in her case the continuation of pregnancy or another pregnancy may be detrimental to her life, then the woman can be aborted or a permanent method of family planning can be adopted to save the life of the woman.
b) Taking birth control pills: Almost all the scholars including Shaykh Ibn Baaz, Council of the Senior Scholars [of Saudi Arabia] agree that it is not allowed to take birth control pills (Fataawa al-Marah) because of its side effects and changes in the normal physiology.
c) Copper-T: A very common temporary method of family planning or contraception is Copper-T. Though it is known as ‘contraception’ but technically it is contra-implantation. The sperm fertilizes the ovum but the zygote formed is destroyed by the Copper-T and is prevented from being implanted on the uterine wall (mother’s womb). Thus it is a very early abortion, which is prohibited in Islam.
Some “scholars” out of ignorance permit this temporary method of family planning without knowing its detail.
d) Coitus Interruptus (‘Azl): Coitus Interruptus is permissible as long as it is performed with mutual consent of both the husband and wife since both of them have equal right to have children.
This is based on the Hadith of Jabir (RA) who said: “We used to practice (‘Azl) coitus interruptus during the days when the Qur’an was being revealed”.
Jabir added: “We used to practice coitus interruptus during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger while the Qur’an was being revealed.” (Sahih Bukhari vol. 7, Hadith no. 136) Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:
“With regard to ‘azl, some of the scholars regarded it as haraam, but the view of the four imams is that it is permissible with the wife’s permission. And Allah nows best.” (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 32/110)
e) As regarding other temporary ethods of family planning like condom etc., the scholars are divided whether their use is permitted or not. Allah (swt) has provided a natural method of planning the family, which is medically known as lactation amenorrhea. After the women gives birth to a child, till she breast feeds she does not have her menstrual cycle, thus the chances of pregnancy in this period of lactation is minimal.
Allah says in the Qur’an “The mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two whole years...” (Al-Qur’an 2:233)
Reasons for Family Planning: All the various reasons for family planning can be divided into two categories:
1. Either for poverty or 2. Giving special attention to children by having fewer children. As for those who are poor and fear that they will not be able to meet the economic expenses of the additional child, Allah (swt) has prescribed the system of zakaat. Every rich person who has the savings of more than the nisab level i.e. 85 gms of gold, should give 2.5% of his excess wealth every lunar year in charity. Those who are poor have the right to take the zakaat money. Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an “...Kill not your children on a plea of want; We provide sustenance for you and for them;” (Al-Qur’an 6:151) Allah (swt) also mentions in the Qur’an
“Kill not your children for fear of want: We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you: verily the killing of them is a great sin.” (Al-Qur’an 17:31) Both these verses seems to convey the same message but on scrutiny we realize that the first verse is meant for poor parents, who fear that if one more child is born in the family neither they will be able to survive nor the child, thus Allah (swt) says we provide sustenance for you and for them. In the other verse Allah (swt) says We shall provide sustenance for them and as well as for you, referring to rich parents who feel that if they have less children they can concentrate on them better and give them better education and quality life. Here Allah (swt) reverses the order and mentions first the children and then the parents. I am the fifth child of my parents. If my parents would have done family planning, then I would not have been born. Alhumdulillah, I have qualified as a medical doctor, which is supposed to be one of the best professions in society. However I have given it up for a better profession and become a daee’. Am I a boon or a bane to the society? It is a misconception that if there are fewer children you can provide better education and quality life to your child.
However, its worth notable that one never knows which child could be a blessing from the Creator for the family. It is quite possible that the child, which the parents anticipate to be a bane, may turn out to be a boon for the family and the society. History bears witness to the fact that many of the great scientists, thinkers, and revolutionaries were not from only amongst the first two children of their parents. Thus the child whom the parents consider unwanted may be a blessing to the family religiously and economically. With regards to the claim of the people who say that the growth in population increases poverty, this was mainly based on Malthusian’s theory. This theory states that, to maintain prosperity and welfare of human race, its increase should be checked to correspond with the production of foodstuff.
But now we have realized that Malthusian’s theory has been proved wrong and there is no shortage of food grains. Moreover, in spite of the amount of land India uses in agriculture, there is still much more land in India, which can, with little more efforts in fertilizing it through the proper means be utilized in agriculture thus producing more food grains. It would be interesting to note that population density of Holland and Denmark is about four to five times more than that of India. Nevertheless the living conditions of the people there is far better off (economically) than the Indians. Besides, even if one faces difficulties in upbringing of children, one should always remember that in these hardships could be a test from Allah as this life is a test for the hereafter. Allah says in the Qur’an: “He Who created Death and Life that He may try which of you is best in deed: and He is the Exalted in Might Oft-Forgiving” [Al Qur’an 67: 2] Allah also says:
“Be sure We shall test you with something of fear and hunger some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (of your toil) but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere.” [Al Qur’an 2 :155]
Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an “And they plotted and planned and Allah too planned and the best of planners is Allah (swt)” (Al-Qur’an 3:54).
If you feel you can plan the family better, the choice is yours or else leave it to Allah (swt) to do the best planning for your family.
Allah knows the best.
Posted - Thursday, September 14, 2006 - 6:18 PM
|Assalaamu 'Alaikum. Alhamdulillah, I was going to start a topic on this. We're studying all of these contraceptive methods in biology. I wanted to ask about vasectomy and tubal ligation----if it was Haraam or not, and I've got my answer. I totally agree with the reasons that are mentioned for practising these methods. I have a concern regarding this: my biology book states that people who do not want to have any more children, they usually go for tubal ligation and vasectomy. I think this is completely Haraam because it's in a way going against the nature of Man (to have offspring). Same is the case for condoms, etc. If the couple merely does not want to have children, they have no right to go for these methods. They should go for these methods only if there is danger to the woman's/man's health, etc., i.e. for a legitimate reason. I'm surprised that my biology teacher never warned us not to practice these things unless required. By 'required' I mean if it's a matter of life and death, etc. I mean, anyone can misuse these methods. Men/women can use them if they want to practise Zinaa so that nobody ever finds out. That's what I dislike about this teacher; she's ultra-liberal.|
Our book also says that to protect yourself from sexually-transmitted diseases you should stick to one life partner. Alhamdulillah that's good for women, but men are allowed to have upto four wives. I think she should've told us something from the Islamic point of view regarding these things.
Posted - Friday, September 15, 2006 - 5:42 PM
|Is this a new way to advertize ur website?|
Posted - Saturday, September 16, 2006 - 1:59 AM
|modern people ( also the muslims like ‘*reporter’) do family planning by oral and anal sex and consider this shameful act lawful.|
see at www.islamicfamilysex.com
Posted - Saturday, September 16, 2006 - 6:47 PM
Is this a new way to advertize ur website?
I didn't get what you're trying to say.
Posted - Saturday, September 16, 2006 - 9:19 PM
|i didnt say anything in response to ur reply..i said that in response to pubby's fazool post in which he mentioned a website.|
|Reply to Topic